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Risk Factors

Frequently Asked Questions About Risk Factors



Bingenheimer, J. B., Brennan, R. T., and Earls, F. J. (2005). “Firearm Violence Exposure and Serious Violent Behavior.” Science, 308:1323–1326.

Craig, W. M., Vitaro, C. G., and Tremblay, R. E. (2002). “The Road to Gang Membership: Characteristics of Male Gang and Non-Gang Members From Ages 10 to 14.” Social Development, 11:53–68.

Eitle, D., Gunkel, S., and Gundy, K. V. (2004). “Cumulative Exposure to Stressful Life Events and Male Gang Membership.” Journal of Criminal Justice, 32:95–111.

Esbensen, F. and Huizinga, D. (1993). “Gangs, Drugs, and Delinquency in a Survey of Urban Youth.” Criminology, 31, 565–589.

Esbensen, F. A., Peterson, D., Taylor, T. J., and Freng, A. (2009). “Similarities and Differences in Risk Factors for Violent Offending and Gang Membership.” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 42:310–335.

Gilman, A. B., Hill, K. G., Hawkins, J. D., Howell, J. C., and Kosterman, R. (2014). “The Developmental Dynamics of Joining a Gang in Adolescence: Patterns and Predictors of Gang Membership.” Journal of Research on Adolescence, 24: 204–219.

Goldstein, A. P. and Glick, B. (1994). The Prosocial Gang: Implementing Aggression Replacement Training. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Gottfredson, G. D. (2013). “What Can Schools Do to Help Prevent Gang Joining?” In T. R. Simon, N. M. Ritter, and R. R. Mahendra (eds.), Changing Course: Preventing Gang Membership (pp. 89–104). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Haviland, A. M. and Nagin, D. S. (2005). “Causal Inferences With Group-Based Trajectory Models.” Psychometrika, 70, 1–22.

Hemphill, S. A., Toumborou, J. W., Herrenkohl, T. L., McMorris, B. J., and Catalano, R. F. (2006). “The Effect of School Suspensions and Arrests on Subsequent Adolescent Behavior in Australia and the United States.” Journal of Adolescent Health, 39:736–744.

Hill, K. G., Howell, J. C., Hawkins, J. D., and Battin-Pearson, S. R. (1999). “Childhood Risk Factors for Adolescent Gang Membership: Results From the Seattle Social Development Project.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 36:300–322.

Hill, K. G., Lui, C., and Hawkins, J. D. (2001). “Early Precursors of Gang Membership: A Study of Seattle Youth.” Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Howell, J. C. and Egley, A., Jr. (2005). “Moving Risk Factors Into Developmental Theories of Gang Membership.” Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 3:334–354.

Howell, J. C. and Griffiths, E. (2016). Gangs in America’s Communities (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Howell, J. C., Lipsey, M. W., and Wilson, J. J. (2014). A Handbook for Evidence-Based Juvenile Justice Systems. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Krohn, M. D., Lizotte, A. J., Bushway, S. D., Schmidt, N. M., and Phillips, M. D. (2014). “Shelter During the Storm: A Search for Factors That Protect At-Risk Adolescents From Violence.” Crime & Delinquency, 60, 379–401.

Lacourse, E., Nagin, D. S., Vitaro, F., Cote, S.; Arseneault, L., and Tremblay, R. E. (2006). “Prediction of Early-Onset Deviant Peer Group Affiliation.” Archives of General Psychiatry, 63:562–568.

Lahey, B. B., Gordon, R. A., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., and Farrington, D. P. (1999). “Boys Who Join Gangs: A Prospective Study of Predictors of First Gang Entry.” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27:261–276.

Le Blanc, M. and Lanctot, N. (1998). ”Social and Psychological Characteristics of Gang Members According to the Gang Structure and Its Subcultural and Ethnic Makeup.” Journal of Gang Research, 5: 15–28.

Lizotte, A. J., Krohn, M. D., Howell, J. C., Tobin, K., and Howard, G. J. (2000). “Factors Influencing Gun Carrying Among Young Urban Males Over the Adolescent-Young Adult Life Course.” Criminology, 38:811–834.

Morenoff, J. D., Sampson, R. J., and Raudenbush, S. W. (2001). “Neighborhood Inequality, Collective Efficacy, and the Spatial Dynamics of Urban Violence.” Criminology, 3:517–559.

Sampson, R. J. and Laub, J. H. (1997). “A Life-Course Theory of Cumulative Disadvantage and the Stability of Delinquency.” In T. P. Thornberry (ed.), Developmental Theories of Crime and Delinquency (Vol. 7), (pp. 133–161). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

Taylor, T. J., Freng, A., Esbensen, F., and Peterson, D. (2008). “Youth Gang Membership and Serious Violent Victimization: The Importance of Lifestyles and Routine Activities.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23:1441–1464.

Thornberry, T. P., Krohn, M. D., Lizotte, A. J., Smith, C. A., and Tobin, K. (2003). Gangs and Delinquency in Developmental Perspective. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Date Created: November 24, 2020