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Resources and Bibliography



National Gang Center (NGC) Strategic Planning Tool
This tool provides information on risk factors for gang involvement and links them to a matrix of promising and effective gang prevention and intervention programs and strategies.

OJJDP Model Program Guide
This guide contains a juvenile justice-oriented index of effective programs sorted by type: prevention, immediate sanctions, intermediate sanctions, residential, and reentry.

Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs
Online publication

Early Precursors of Gang Membership: A Study of Seattle Youth
Online publication

Parents Guide to Gangs
Online brochure from the National Gang Center

Frequently Asked Questions About Gangs
National Gang Center

Trauma in the Lives of Gang-Involved Youth
Online publication from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network

Changing Course: Preventing Gang Membership
Online publication


Esbensen, F. (2010). Youth violence sex and race differences in offending, victimization, and gang membership. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Howell, J. C. (2003). Preventing and reducing juvenile delinquency: A comprehensive framework. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc.

--- (2012). Gangs in America’s communities. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc.

--- and Egley, A., Jr. (2005). Moving risk factors into developmental theories of gang membership. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 3(4):334-354.

Klein, M. W. and Maxson, C. L. (2006). Street gang patterns and policies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Miller, J. (2014). “Gender and Victimization Risk Among Young Women in Gangs.” In Maxson, L., Egley, A., Miller J., and Klein, M. (eds.), The Modern Gang Reader, 4th edition (pp. 282-295). New York: Oxford University Press. Reprinted from Miller, J., “Gender and Victimization Risk Among Young Women in Gangs,” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 35: 429-453, 1998. Sage Publications, Inc.

Shader, M. (2003.). Risk Factors for Delinquency: An Overview. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention report. Retrieved August 1, 2013, from http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/frd030127.pdf (Adobe PDF).

Thornberry, T. P., Huizinga, D., and Loeber, R. (2004). “The Causes and Correlates Studies: Findings and Policy Implications,” Juvenile Justice, 10(1), 3-19 (Adobe PDF).

Krohn, M. D. and Thornberry, T. P. (2008). “Longitudinal Perspectives on Adolescent Street Gangs,” in A. Liberman, ed., The Long View of Crime: A Synthesis of Longitudinal Research (pp. 128-138, 147-151). Springer.